БИОХИМИЯ, 2022, том 87, вып. 9, с. 1163–1181

УДК 577.2

Молекулярные механизмы нейропротекторного эффекта метиленового синего

Обзор

© 2022 А.П. Гуреев 1,2*gureev@bio.vsu.ru, И.С. Садовникова 1, В.Н. Попов 1,2

Воронежский государственный университет, 394018 Воронеж, Россия

Воронежский государственный университет инженерных технологий, 394036 Воронеж, Россия

Поступила в редакцию 03.05.2022
После доработки 07.07.2022
Принята к публикации 15.07.2022

DOI: 10.31857/S0320972522090019

КЛЮЧЕВЫЕ СЛОВА: метиленовый синий, нейродегенерация, болезнь Альцгеймера, тау-белок, альтернативный транспорт электронов, Nrf2/ARE сигнальный путь, апоптоз, аутофагия, воспаление, моноаминоксидаза, NO-синтаза.

Аннотация

Метиленовый синий (МС) является первым полностью синтетическим веществом, которое нашло своё применение в медицине более 120 лет назад для лечения малярии. Сейчас МС одобрен для лечения метгемоглобинемии, но есть предпосылки для его репозиционирования в сторону нейропротекции. Перспективность данного соединения подтверждается тем, что на различных моделях была показана эффективность при терапии болезни Альцгеймера, Паркинсона, Хантингтона, моделях черепно-мозговых травм, бокового амниотического склероза, депрессивных расстройствах и т.д. Но задача данного обзора – не столько сконцентрироваться на описании терапевтических эффектов МС при лечении всевозможных нейродегенераций, сколько углубиться в механизмы действия сигнальных путей, на которые данный препарат оказывает прямое или косвенное влияние. МС может функционировать как альтернативный переносчик электронов в дыхательной цепи митохондрий при нарушении работы цепи переноса электронов. Он может оказывать противовоспалительный и антиапоптотический эффекты, ингибировать моноаминооксидазы и NO-синтазы, активировать сигнальные пути, которые обеспечивают обновление митохондриального пула – митохондриальный биогенез и аутофагию, препятствовать агрегации белков с неправильной укладкой. Понимание и комплексное изучение всех аспектов прямого и косвенного действия МС, а не только какого-либо одного эффекта может помочь в его дальнейшем исследовании, в том числе и на клиническом уровне.

Сноски

* Адресат для корреспонденции.

Финансирование

Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке Министерства науки и Высшего образования Российской Федерации в рамках Государственного задания университетам в области научной деятельности на 2020–2022 гг. (проект № FZGU-2020-0044), стипендии Президента Российской Федерации молодым учёным и аспирантам (проект № СП-2802.2021.4), гранта Президента Российской Федерации для государственной поддержки молодых российских учёных и по государственной поддержке ведущих научных школ (НШ-1375.2022.5).

Вклад авторов

А.П. Гуреев – написание текста, И.С. Садовникова – поиск и аннотация статей, подготовка рисунков, В.Н. Попов – концепция и руководство.

Конфликт интересов

Авторы заявляют об отсутствии конфликта интересов.

Соблюдение этических норм

Настоящая статья не содержит описания каких-либо исследований с участием людей или животных в качестве объектов.

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