БИОХИМИЯ, 2022, том 87, вып. 12, с. 1818–1841

УДК 577.24

Является ли старение человека формой феноптоза?

Обзор

© 2022 G. Libertini 1,2*giacinto.libertini@yahoo.com, G. Corbi 3,4, O. Shubernetskaya 5, and N. Ferrara 2,6

Italian Society for Evolutionary Biology (SIBE), 14100 Asti, Italy

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy

Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, 86100 Campobasso, Italy

Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (SIGG), 50129 Firenze, Italy

Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, 117997 Moscow, Russia

Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SPA – Società Benefit, IRCCS, 82037 Telese Terme (BN), Italy

Поступила в редакцию 02.08.2022
После доработки 28.08.2022
Принята к публикации 29.08.2022

DOI: 10.31857/S0320972522120041

КЛЮЧЕВЫЕ СЛОВА: феноптоз, старение, субтеломеры, теломеры, субтеломерно-теломерная теория, постепенное клеточное старение, клеточное старение, эпигенетические изменения.

Аннотация

Суть этой активно обсуждаемой научной проблемы заключается в том, является ли старение следствием накопления дегенеративных факторов, недостаточно противостоящих естественному отбору, или же, напротив, оно является упорядоченным процессом, генетически предопределённым и регулируемым, моделируемым естественным отбором, для которого было вполне уместно использовать определение феноптотического явления. В настоящем обзоре приведены теоретические аргументы и эмпирические данные в пользу обеих гипотез с дополнительными доказательствами в поддержку тезиса о старении как форме феноптоза. Поскольку тезис о старении как адаптивном запрограммированном явлении должен быть подкреплён существованием специфических механизмов, определяющих старение, таких как предложенная для этой цели субтеломерно-теломерная теория, приводятся доказательства, подтверждающие механизмы, описываемые этой теорией. В частности, в статье подчёркивается, что недавно появившаяся интерпретация роли последовательностей TERRA в рамках субтеломерно-теломерной теории является ключевым моментом в поддержку гипотетических механизмов. Кроме того, отдельные характеристики механизмов, предложенных в рамках данной теории, такие как наблюдаемые при старении эпигенетические модификации, постепенное старение клеток, клеточное старение, ограничения дупликации клеток и фиксированный размер теломерного гетерохроматинового капюшона, подробно рассмотрены на предмет их совместимости как с положением о старении как феноптотическом явлении, так и с противоположными точками зрения. Короче говоря, старение как форма феноптоза представляется научно обоснованной гипотезой, в то время как противоположный тезис должен прояснить значение различных явлений, которые, по-видимому, опровергают его.

Сноски

* Адресат для корреспонденции.

Вклад авторов

Первый автор взял на себя инициативу в написании рукописи. Все авторы обсудили результаты, предоставили критические отзывы и внесли свой вклад в окончательный вариант рукописи.

Конфликт интересов

Авторы заявляют об отсутствии конфликта интересов в финансовой или любой другой сфере.

Соблюдение этических норм

Эта статья не содержит каких-либо исследований с участием людей или животных, проведённых кем-либо из авторов.

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